Stephen B. Smith
Regents Professor and Senior Faculty Fellow, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, USA
“Meat Production in Asia and the World”
The demand for beef as a protein source is increasing world¬wide, although in most countries beef accounts for less than half of total meat consumption. Beef provides a highly desirable eating experience in developed countries and, increasingly, in developing countries. The sustainability of beef production has different meanings in the various geo¬graphical regions of the world. Natural resources including land mass and uses, rainfall and access to livestock feed, and the robustness of the economy are major determinants of the perception of beef sustainability. This session will discuss important aspects beef production in countries in Asia as well as countries producing highly marbled beef for export and/or for domestic con¬sumption. Notable differences exist within Asia and in other countries in the production and marketing of beef. These reflect differences in natural resource availability and climate, population size, traditional culture, and degree of economic development, including indus¬trial and technological developments. The contributions to the 68th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology will serve as a valuable re¬source for the livestock industries, researchers, and students with an interest in enhancing the prospects for sustainable, efficient beef production that satisfies the growing size and complexity of consumer demands and markets for beef.
Session 1. Meat Market of the World
New South Wales Department of Primary, Australia
“The Evolving Beef Industry in the Pacific Rim”
The Pacific Rim includes countries with widely diverse beef industries. They include primarily subsistence-based beef production in developing south-east Asian countries that may also import beef, carabeef from buffalo, or live cattle for slaughter or breeding. They also include countries that consume high eating quality beef from limited domestic production and substantial volumes of imported beef. The latter include Japan and South Korea and, increasingly, China which is now the world’s largest importer of beef. Australia, USA, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico are large-scale Pacific Rim beef exporters, supplying primarily to Asia and the USA. Countries outside the Pacific rim, notably Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and India are also important exporters of beef or carabeef to Pacific Rim countries.
Global consumption and prices for beef continue to grow, largely underpinned by increasing standards of living and demand for beef in developing Asian countries including China. Beef is perceived as a premium meat, however, beef consumption as a proportion of all meat consumed is expected to decline, and to face increasing competition from non-meat protein sources. Consumer preferences for beef are driven by numerous factors among Pacific Rim countries, including food safety, freshness, Halal status, naturalness, and value of product.
The more advanced Pacific Rim beef industries have evolved a high degree of flexibility in their production and marketing systems that increases resilience in the dealing with variable climatic conditions and limiting resources and in shifts and uncertainties in target markets. They are also evolving to use more objective data and improved linkages across the supply chain to enable improvements in efficiency of resource use and environmental and cattle welfare outcomes, compliance with market specifications, and hence provenance and financial returns.
Keith E. Belk
College of Agricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, USA
“Diversity in Global Production Systems Allows Beef to Hit Consumers Targets in a Range of Markets”
In 2021, the global meat market was valued at US$1.33 trillion; growth is expected to continue at an annual rate of >3% over the next 5 years. Beef is a very important meat product in trade, representing more than than 20% of total meat market share. Beef production systems differ by country of origin, availability of resources, genetic adaptability to the environment, culture, and tradition. Diversity in production results in variation among characteristics of concern to consumers, including animal wellbeing, environmental footprint, flavor, tenderness, etc. These diverse characteristics tied to beef allows production systems from differing countries to specifically target consumer preferences in different markets. This presentation focuses on variability in beef production systems and potential markets to target for those products across North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. From grain-finished cattle in North America to grass-fed in South America and Oceania, or to no-antibiotic or growth promotant use in Europe, beef systems have evolved to provide products that can satisfy consumers' needs around the globe. Understanding the interaction between beef production systems and markets will increase opportunities for producers by allowing them to target the characteristics preferred by consumers in those markets.
Abdulatef M. Ahhmed
Life Science Department, School of Basic Sciences, The Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies, Libya
“Perspectives on the Trends, Challenges and Benefits of Halal Meat”
Halal meat (HM) is becoming increasingly popular among non-Muslims, especially in Europe and some major Asian countries, due to the desire to eat healthy meat. The demand for Halal meat is increasing significantly in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle-East, because of the explosion in the Muslim population. The credit for opening young investing trends of Halal meat is not only due to the resident Muslims in foreign countries but also due to the multinational companies that continuously work to develop the overall operating system utilizing Halal dietary rules (Sharia). Recently, because of the quality-and ethical-conscious, consumers are increasingly seeking Halal meat that meet the criteria of Sharia law (Halal and Taieb regulations), traceability practices and a high standard of animal welfare, which the producers and suppliers are said to ensure. The Halal food and beverage market size is growing by 6.1-7%, which topped the list of spending in the Islamic sector with $1.6 trillion in 2018, and is expected to reach 1.9 trillion by 2030. Halal meat production is an emerging opportunity with various new challenges for producers and consumers worldwide, especially in non-Muslim countries. In the Halal production system there are some factors limiting the development of the Halal meat sector from the perspective of regulations acceptance, certification and accreditation, processing (slaughtering methods), distributing, and retailing partners. The meat consumed by Muslims acts as 15% of the global consumption and the market size of Halal meat (51.15 Million Tonnes) is predicted to be approximately around $ 278.767 Billion in 2022. As a matter, Halal meat participate by 17% of the total global Halal food market size (1.6 Trillion) and that is quite important guide offering promising business opportunities. Internationally, the investing opportunity in the Halal meat industry is quite valuable. However, it must be taken into account that this business requires good supply chain management and operations that are highly efficient at a low cost, without compromising the Halal status and integrity of the products.
Session 2. Meat Industry & Science in Japan
Japan Ham & Sausage Processors Cooperative Association, Japan
“Developing Japanese Wagyu Beef in the World Beef Market”
Japan Livestock Products Export Promotion Council (J-LEC) has been conducting export promotion actively since it was established in 2014. In 2019, the Government of Japan set the export target for beef at 25.0 billion yen. Thanks to the great cooperation of our partners in the livestock industry, our beef exports for 2019 reached 29.7 billion yen, exceeding the government target. Genuine Japanese Wagyu beef is characterized by rich marbling which produces a tender, fine-textured product with an enticing aroma and oleic acid-rich fat. As we promote Wagyu beef outside Japan, understanding of the superior qualities of genuine Japanese Wagyu beef has been growing among food connoisseurs around the world. Japan’s beef export strategy is now taking the next step. The Japanese government has renewed the export strategy for agricultural products, including beef. The 2025 target for beef exports is 160 billion yen, increasing to 360billion yen in 2030. The current session of the Diet is planning to amend the Act on Facilitating the Export of Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Products and Food. The amendment would tie government support to the individual export promotion organization requirements specified under the law. I would like to make my presentation on J-LEC’s updated approach to meeting the new requirements.
Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Japan
“Science and Technology of Meat and Meat Products in Japan -Pursuit of Those Palatability underthe Influence of Washoku, Traditional Japanese Cuisine”
In 2012, Washoku (traditional Japanese cuisine) was registered as a World Intangible Heritage Site. Its characteristics are the variety and freshness of the ingredients, the respect for the inherent flavor, and the well-balanced and healthy diet. However, the western food culture centered on meat eating was brought in and fused with the original Washoku culture to construct recent Japanese food culture. In the midst of such changes, the meat science and technology of Japan has developed. The products produced by meat industry have adapted to people's preference, resulting in increase of those consumption and improving nutritional status of the Japanese. Thus, the palatability composed of taste, aroma and texture, is one of the major targets of meat science and technology in Japan. Research on meat tastes, almost umami which is an important factor of Washoku, revealed the mechanism of improvement of taste during aging and cooking of meat and demonstrated the possibility to control meat taste by animal diet. Research on meat odors found Wagyu beef aroma, preferable odors of meat products and relaxing effect of cooked meat odors. Studies on meat textures were led to clarifying the mechanism of heating gel formation and tenderness of Wagyu beef, and contributed to understanding postmortem tenderization of meat and tenderness induced by cooking and high pressure.
Azabu University, Japan
“The Relationship between Muscle Fiber Types and Taste Substances Contained in Meat”
Free amino acids are important components of taste substances and flavor-precursors in meat. To clarify the relationship between muscle fiber type (slow- and fast-twitch fibers) and free amino acid level, we measured the concentrations of various free amino acids and dipeptides contained in meat pieces derived from different twenty-one muscle tissues in cattle. The muscle fiber type composition showed a large variation depending on the type of muscle tissue. We also found that there was a strong positive correlation between slow-twitch fiber composition and total free amino acid concentrations. Moreover, we also found a similar positive correlation between fiber type composition and umami taste intensity by using a taste sensor. These results suggest that high levels of slow-twitch fiber in beef could induce strong umami taste and richness induced by possibly high level of free amino acids.
Hokkaido University, Japan
“Zinc Protoporphyrin IX Formation Mechanism in Nitrite/nitrate-free Dry-cured Ham”
A large amount of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) is found in nitrite/nitrate-free dry-cured ham products, such as Parma ham, and it contributes to the favorable bright red color. ZnPP is a metalloporphyrin in which zinc is coordinated instead of the iron in heme. The color of ZnPP gives a preferable bright red color and it is markedly more stable than heme. Therefore, the use of ZnPP is expected to improve the color of meat products without the addition of nitrite or nitrate. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which ZnPP is formed in nitrite/nitrate-free dry-cured ham, as they have not been completely elucidated. In this lecture, I will introduce some of our group’s findings; for example, why ZnPP is not formed in cured meat products, where and how ZnPP is found in Parma ham, and which endogenous and exogenous factors contribute to the formation of ZnPP in ham.
NARO Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Japan
“Evaluations of Sensory and Consumer Perceptions of Meat: Recent Progress in Japan”
Measurements of sensory and consumer perceptions are important for monitoring, maintaining, and improving the eating quality of meat. A sensory evaluation is the primary and the most important procedure for measuring sensory traits and eating preferences that cannot be determined by instrumental measurements alone. Novel procedures for sensory evaluation have been proposed in recent years, as is also the case for instrumental analyses. These novel sensory testing procedures have contributed to the progress in sensory evaluations of meat and meat products. For example, check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions, one of the 'rapid' procedures for sensory techniques, have been for the screening of sensory items and for non-target analyses of sensory characteristics of meat. The multidimensional sensory method known as temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), which collects the sequence of the 'dominant' sensations during tasting, also provides novel findings regarding sensory traits of meat. These recent sensory techniques will increase our understanding of sensory traits and consumer perceptions that have not been clarified with the use of traditional descriptive sensory-testing protocols.
Session 3. Meat Microbiology & Safety
Azabu University, Japan
“Historical Background of Eating Meat Culture and Meat Hygiene in Japan”
While the Edo period (1603-1868), Japan was a strict Buddhism and Shintoism country. In addition, Japan was isolated country in the world. There was no culture of eating meat in Japan. Only few people eat wild boar and deer meat as a medicine, because the wild animals are God in forest. In 1859, foreign settlement was established in Yokohama. The foreigner wanted to eat beef, so many wagyu beef cattle shipped from Kobe to Yokohama. It is the start of eating meat culture. When Wagyu beef from 3 slaughterhouses start to export to the United State in 1990, I think that meat hygiene started. Because Japan cannot export meat to foreign country, and nobody including veterinary meat inspectors know world-class meat hygiene. In 1996, STEC outbreak in humans has occurred in Japan, the meat hygiene system was evaluated. Now, 15, 12, and 10 slaughterhouses expert wagyu beef to the United State, EU countries, and Australia, respectively. Japanese had a habit of eating raw liver from cattle and pig as well as see food “Sashimi”. But now, eating the raw liver is forbidden. According to the domestic guideline of meat industries, expiry period of beef packed vacuum and kept 4℃ is 26 days. But the period in slaughterhouse exporting beef shows over 100 days.
In this session 3, I talk about meat culture in Japan and meat hygiene based on microorganisms.
Brown University, USA
“The Use of Foodomics in Food Safety”
Food safety plays a crucial role in both food-producing and food-processing industry that now face new challenges, mostly due to globalization of food chain. Gradually increasing risk of environmental chemical and microbial contamination and increasing resistance of foodborne pathogens, changes in climate and human errors in food handling remain a pending barrier for the efficient global food safety management. Consequently, a need for development, validation, and implementation of rapid, sensitive, and accurate fast high-throughput foodomics methods that are based on genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomics techniques. For their development investigations of sample structure and composition, biological activity of food contaminants and their interference with the host is necessary. Presented new foodomic techniques are suitable to address a number of novel requirements posed by the food production sector, especially regarding drastically reduced time for analysis and validation. The shortest and most reliable methods are mass-spectrometry based, but their combination with other most chromatography- and electrophoresis-based analyses is frequently necessary, especially during sampling and sample preparation processes. Further work in direction of miniaturized units with integrated sampling, sample preparation and final analysis including fast data interpretation that has resulted in fulminant development of sensors as miniaturized and fast in situ devices that will be presented.
Michael W Pfaffl
Technical University of Munich, Germany
“New Food Safety Surveillance Concepts in Meat Producing Animals: the Successful Use of ‘-omic’ Technologies”
The worldwide misuse of anabolic growth promoters is an ubiquitous problem in animal husbandry and meat production. In the EU the ban of such illegal drugs and growth promoters is well controlled. Nevertheless, there are worldwide application regimens that are difficult to detect. The indirect identification of endogenous molecular biomarkers, which are based on the physiological response after the illicit treatment, has come into focus of modern detection methods. This measurement of the pharmacological reaction of the illegal applied hormone cocktail or the newly designed drug in the living animal or in selected tissues after slaughtering will help. The holistic analysis of the ‘transcriptome’ has been shown to be a promising approach to discover the misuse of anabolic or growth promoting drugs in food producing animals. Characteristic ‘transcriptomic biomarker signatures’ were identified at the mRNA and microRNA level by high throughput ‘omics’ technologies (RNA-Sequencing) or quantification by RT-qPCR. With the successful use of advanced bioinformatical tools and multivariate algorithms, such as hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal components analysis (PCA), or partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), a valid ‘biomarker signature’ could be identified.
Our results from farm animal production and food safety studies demonstrate that the transcriptome analysis has high potential as a new screening and detection method, to discriminate between illegal treated and untreated healthy animals. Furthermore, this ‘omics’ and bioinformatical approach can help to increase the overall animal health and animal welfare, to reach the ‘One Health’ goal.
Session 4. Muscle Biology & Meat Biochemistry
Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Germany
“Molecular and Cellular Background of Intramuscular Fat Deposition”
Modulating intramuscular fat (IMF) in farm animals is still an important research topic. Besides the major effects of IMF on tenderness and palatability of meat, topics like resource efficiency are considered additionally. Although, basic molecular mechanisms of adipogenesis are known for decades, only the availability of genome data in farm animals provided a wealth of additional candidate genes for IMF deposition. Only few candidates, which could be verified at least in part in different breeds, were used in breeding for higher IMF. Data at cellular level showing amount and localization of candidate proteins are even more rarely. Candidate gene analyses were subsequently complemented and partly replaced by genome-wide studies including hitherto neglected RNA species. These studies revealed complex networks of genes, which are involved in or related to IMF deposition. Recent approaches aimed at identification of so-called adipokines and myokines, which are crucial components of the cross talk between the different cell types in skeletal muscle tissue. While not directly usable in breeding, the results of these studies contributed to a better understanding of biological processes underlying intramuscular adipogenesis and lipid deposition in farm animals.
Jiangnan University, China
“Colloidal Engineering to Tailor Myoprotein Functionality for Muscle Food Innovation”
There is still space for improvement in the field of future meat products which pursue healthy, functional, nutritious and sustainable processing. The underlying reasons can be attributed to insufficient understanding and exploration of the functional properties of muscle protein. Therefore, it is of urgent to actively explore the novel functional properties of muscle protein in order to broaden its application scope, realize its efficient use and consequently promote the rapid development of the industry. In recent years, with the rapid integration and development of material science, soft matter physics, nanotechnology, colloid and interface science in the food context, multi-length scale exploration, assembly and functional re-design of food structures are becoming an effective way for the green innovations of future food. It is also a green, safe, efficient and potentially feasible strategy for improving and expanding the functional properties of muscle protein. This article reviews the research progress of functionalized structural and colloidal design in the expansion of muscle protein functionality, the advances of promoting the processability of muscle protein in beverage or soft foods are highlighted. Meanwhile, their contributions in the application of muscle protein on 3D printing, morphing food, and the construction of delivery system and functional materials are prospected. This review aims to provide a reference for the promotion of future meat processing technology and the industrialization.
Niigata University, Japan
“Regulation of Taste-active Components of Meat by Dietary Amino Acids in Chicken”
Meat quality is an important quality attribute for consumers. For example, breeding technique, dietary antioxidants and colors were mainly used for improving the meat quality in the world. However, there are few reports about improving the taste active components of meat by diet. Previously, we suggested that main taste-component, free glutamate (Glu), content of meat was regulated by dietary crude protein levels. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary amino acids on the Glu contents and sensory scores of meats. As a result, free Glu content in meat was significantly increased by High Lysine (Lys) diet. In addition, for the investigation of the mechanism of Glu regulation, metabolome analysis in muscle were conducted. In the feeding of a high Lys diet, the Lys degradation pathway contributed to the increase in the free Glu concentration of muscle. While, the feeding of a low Lys diet also increased the free Glu in muscle. Sensory evaluation of meat soups from different Lys diets showed that they had different meat tastes. Dietary BCAAs also affected the free Glu contents of meat. These results suggest that some dietary amino acids are regulating factor of free Glu content in meat and improves meat taste.
NARO Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Japan
“Farm Animal Muscle Metabolism Approached with Omics Technologies”
Farm animal skeletal muscle formed through development, growth, and maturation processes, is converted to edible meat during postmortem rigor mortis and aging. The live and postmortem muscle metabolism is the phenotypic determinant of muscle characteristics and meat quality traits such as flavor and color. In addition, muscle metabolites and the biosynthetic network are further modulated by alteration of animal feeding and environment through nutritional/physiological adaptation, which could alter meat quality traits. The past few years, metabolomics has exerted the efficient and comprehensive performance to elucidate effects of animal growth, feeding, and postmortem aging on the muscle and meat metabolome profile, sometimes in integrative approaches combined with genomics, transcriptomics, and/or proteomics information. These approaches are beneficial for better understanding of muscle metabolism and for exploration of the biomarker to monitor meat production processes and to evaluate the products. This presentation will overview current metabolomics studies focusing on research of live and postmortem metabolism of farm animal muscle that is associated with meat quality and production.
Session 5. Meat Products and Technology
United States Department of Agriculture, USA
“The Biological Basis for Animal Variation in Lean Color Stability”
Lean color is the primary factor considered by consumers while making purchase decisions. Failure to meet consumer expectations regarding lean color results in discounting and discarding of products, which are costly to the meat industry. Case-ready distribution of muscle foods requires greater lean color stability, and cuts from some animals do not meet specifications for color-life. Heritability and breed difference estimates indicated that genetic influences are significant contributors to animal variation in lean color stability, which was comparable to the contribution of muscles within a carcass. These effects have been reported to be mediated through variation in initial capacity of oxygen consumption and reducing ability, combined with variation in the ability of the muscle to maintain reducing ability. Proteomic and metabolomic investigations into the color chemistry have implicated antemortem and postmortem metabolism in mechanisms influencing color stability. From these studies, animals favoring glycolytic metabolism tended to produce muscles with more stable lean color, while animals favoring oxidative metabolism tended to produce muscles with labile lean color. Moreover, evidence indicating the importance of mitochondrial abundance and function has increased. This presentation will discuss these factors and strategies to reduce the incidence of carcasses producing cuts with insufficient lean color stability.
Kitasato University, Japan
“Strategies for Utilizing Animal By-products: Promising Approaches with Fermentation, Proteolysis and the Maillard Reaction”
Animal by-products can be defined as entire bodies or parts of animals, products of animal origin, or other products obtained from animals, which are not intended for direct human consumption. As the representative such products, skins, bones, meat trimmings, blood, fatty tissues, horns, feet, hoofs, and internal organs are listed. They are produced in large quantities in slaughterhouses and during the processing of meats. Most parts of animal by-products are discarded as waste or used for low-value products. Since meat trimmings, collagen, blood, are rich in proteins, they are seemed to be promising sources for functional foods and high value-added ingredients. We have been approaching to the utilization of animal by-products with fermentation, protein hydrolysis and the Maillard reaction. Fermentation and protease treatments generates various bioactive peptides from proteins in animal by-products. Although protein-derived bioactive peptides are attractive ingredients, their properties can be improved by the Maillard reaction. Our efforts for developing promising strategies for utilizing animal by-products would open new avenues in the meat industry.
Session 6. Meat Production & Quality of Meat
Kagoshima University, Japan
“Potential of Grass-fed Wagyu and Application of Epigenetics in Beef Production”
A new and innovative strategy for animal production with animal welfare and sustainability for the next generation need to overcome many current environmental challenges, including worldwide abnormal weather, global warming, and pollution. The innovative feeding strategy should consider not only higher-efﬁciency production, but also advanced biological concepts and multi-functional agricultural techniques, into environmentally friendly systems. Our team focus on the application based on a unique phenomenon referred to as fetal and neonatal programming, which is based on the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) related to epigenetics. Marbled beef with increased intramuscular fat (IMF) is considered valuable in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle) raised in Japan and requires feeding a large amount of cereal grain to cause its deposition. However, our challenge is to produce grass-fed Wagyu beef, which is produced on pastures and minimizes environmental impacts, however with moderate marbling. We introduce our studies which have shown that alterations in fetal and early postnatal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology and metabolism of affected grazing Wagyu during adult life. Fetal and neonatal programming through nutritional manipulations in Wagyu may help the ruminant, as an effective grass–protein converter, bring out its quality beef production potential.
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary, Japan
“New Evaluation System for Beef Quality”
Marbling, meat color, fat color, and rib eye area are grading traits that are evaluated in many countries. In order to determine these traits in countries that do not have a grading system, it is desirable to establish a mechanical evaluation system. We have developed an inexpensive camera system using a mobile phone. Moreover, we are currently working on the development of a new system. It is an objective meat quality evaluation method using image analysis realized using the MIJ cloud system. The target values are obtained from a mirror-type carcass camera that can acquire ultra-high-resolution images of the rib eye. Image analysis values from the newly developed “MIJ mobile with BEAK” were compared with the target values using high marbled meat (Japanese Black). While the mirror-type imaging system draws the rib eye contour lines manually, the new camera system draws automatically. The results from the “MIJ mobile with BEAK” were very similar to the target values, with correlation coefficients of 0.98 for the marbling percentage and 0.95 for the coarseness index. The percentage of the difference between the grader BMS and the BMS from image analysis within ±1 was 91.7%. This study showed the possibility of automating the grading process for Japanese Wagyu cattle in Japan.
IRTA Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology, Spain
“Understanding the Future Meat Consumers”
Meat production and consumption continues to grow globally, but in recent decades, issues such as animal welfare and ethical issues, climate change and sustainability, population growth and food security, and increased awareness of the relationship between meat consumption and health have become increasingly important. All these aspects are real barriers that can have a significant impact on meat consumption and its future. The meat sector is aware of these threats and needs to define and reorient its production strategy to adapt it to the new market demands. This work focuses on the detailed analysis of aspects related to animal welfare, sustainability, meat alternatives such as cultured meat, the social and anthropological vision of meat consumption and how they are affecting and will affect the perception and consumption of meat in the coming years. Each of these aspects is approached from a multidisciplinary perspective, including the social, environmental and economic dimensions.
Session 7. Topics of Meat Science & Technology
Koo Bok Chin
Chonnam National University, South Korea
“Improvement of Functional Properties of Meat Products Using Plant Resources”
Functional properties, such as water holding capacity, emulsification and gelation, are highly associated with the quality of the final meat products. The raw meats and ingredients used for the manufacture of meat products might significantly affect these functional properties. Many vegetable resources, including proteins, fats and carbohydrates, have been used for the manufacture of various meat products to improve their functional properties. They contribute to improve the water binding capacity and protein functionality, resulting in improved rheological properties of the meat products. Thus, the mechanisms how the muscle proteins interacted with other vegetable resources with various conditions should be understood to manufacture meat products with better functionality. Therefore, this article briefly reviews the interaction between muscle proteins and either vegetable proteins or other nutrients using various chemical and physical measurements and suggests the optimum condition for the functional improvement of meat products. The combination of functional ingredients from various vegetable resources and effective processing technology might expect to produce the meat products with better quality and reduced ingredients, resulting in a reduced formulation cost.
Kitasato University, Japan
“Guidelines on the Hygienic Management of Wild Meat in Japan”
The populations of wild ungulates, especially sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa), have been abnormally increasing their density and distribution across Japanese archipelago in the last 20 years. The traditional food culture of wild game meat has been inherited in some limited regions in Japan, but in recent years, the usage of caught wild animals for food has been increasing, and game meat has become popular in local restaurants and retail meat shops in many places in Japan. However, fundamental knowledge of game meat hygiene and health risks have not been fully established among hunters, meat processors, restaurant operators and consumers, and occasionally food poisonings through game meat have been occurred. Unlike domesticated livestock, there is no requirement that wild animals be inspected for disease when being butchered for food, and the meat thus derived carries high risks in terms of food hygiene. Accordingly, the Guidelines on the Hygienic Management of Wild Meat were created on 2014 to ensure the safety of wild meat in Japan. Current situation of wild animals and game meat in Japan will described in this paper.
University of Tokyo, Japan
“Formation of Contractile 3D Bovine Muscle Tissue for Construction of Millimeter-thick Cultured Steak”
The global consumption of meat is increasing with population growth, leading to concerns regarding "protein crisis". As the conventional stock-raising industry has been problematic in terms of sustainability due to the ethical problems and its adverse effects on the environment, more sustainable technologies for meat production are required to bridge the demand-supply gap and thwart the protein crisis. Cultured meat constructed via tissue culture of animal cells is one of the candidates as sustainable alternative meat, as it can be generated using small amounts of cells obtained without killing the livestock, as well as lower land use and water footprint. For the construction of cultured steak meat with a realistic texture, large muscle tissue with densely accumulated and unidirectionally aligned matured myotubes is required. In this study, we develop a culture method for constructing 3D cultured bovine muscle tissue composed of unidirectionally aligned myotubes sufficiently mature to show contractility. We also develop a method for fabricating millimeter-thick bovine muscle tissues containing highly aligned myotubes using bovine myoblast-laden hydrogel modules with striped structures. Our method paves the way for further development of larger portions of realistic cultured meat that can supplement animal sources.